Asir Province

May 14, 2024

Asir Province

Asir Province is considered one of the prominent areas in the administrative division of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially as it boasts a rich history and is distinguished by its climate and strategic location. In this article, we will delve deeper into this region and its provinces.

History and Origin of the Name

Since the early 13th century Hijri (19th century CE), Asir Province was under the rule of local tribal leaders. During that period, the reformist call initiated by Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab spread, reaching Asir with the appearance of some reformers like Muhammad and Abdul Wahhab, the sons of Amer Al-Mutahami, who spread the principles of the call among the region's residents. Striving to place Asir under the umbrella of the first Saudi state, their cousin Tami bin Shaib assumed the Emirate of Asir until the region fell under attack by the Ottoman army, leading to the collapse of the first Saudi state and the Ottoman control over Asir.

The region witnessed continuous battles with the Ottoman garrison in Abha until Prince Sa'id bin Musalt succeeded in driving out the Ottomans, making Asir independent of Ottoman rule for more than half a century. However, in 1288 AH / 1871 CE, the campaign of Redif Pasha came, which eradicated the emirate of Prince Muhammad bin A'idh, and subjected the region again to Ottoman rule under the leadership of an Ottoman wali residing in Abha, and this situation continued until 1337 AH / 1919 CE.

Geographical Information


Asir Province covers an area of approximately 400,000 square kilometres, stretching from Shaqra, Ad-Darb, and Bish in the southwest to Najran in the east and Yemen in the southeast. Its northern borders include Wadi Al-Dawasir, while it extends westward to include Al-Qunfudhah, Rania, the Red Sea coast, and the Bahah region.


The climate of Asir Province is characterized by relative coolness during the winter and moderation in the summer. In August, temperatures do not exceed 24 degrees Celsius, which is considered low compared to the average temperatures in other regions of the Kingdom. Due to its location in the path of seasonal winds, Asir experiences frequent rains and rainstorms, with increased intensity in the high-altitude areas above sea level.

Cities and Governorates of the Region

Abha Governorate:

Abha governorate, also known as the Emirate of Abha, serves as the headquarters of Asir Province and is also its administrative capital. The population of Abha governorate is approximately (422,243) inhabitants according to the Saudi census for the year 2022, consisting of (286,376) Saudis and (135,867) non-Saudis. While the population of the Emirate of Abha is estimated at about 366,551 people according to the latest statistics.

Khamis Mushait Governorate:

Khamis Mushait, located in the southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is one of the governorates of the Asir Province. This city occupies a prominent commercial centre in the region and is considered the third-largest commercial city in the Kingdom. Khamis Mushait is characterized by its central location with respect to the main roads connecting the region with other regions and cities of the Kingdom, in addition to its moderate climate, which is considered an attractive feature.

Bisha Governorate:

Bisha is located 260 kilometres north of Abha city, and it is connected by a network of paved roads, in addition to the presence of a nearby airport that enhances accessibility. Bisha's climate is characterized by moderate temperatures in the summer and mildness in the winter. Among its prominent landmarks is the Bisha Dam, which is located in the Bisha Valley, 35 kilometres southwest of the city. This dam is one of the largest dams in the Middle East, with a length of 507 meters and a height of 113 meters. The dam is distinguished by storing the largest artificial freshwater lake in the Kingdom, with an area of ​​about 30 square kilometres, and its storage capacity reaches 352 million cubic meters of freshwater.

Al-Namas Governorate:

Al-Namas governorate, classified as category (A), is located southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 140 kilometres from Abha city, on the summit of the Sarawat Mountains. The governorate is characterized by the spread of dense forests in its territories and includes three affiliated centres. It is inhabited by approximately 38,409 people, equivalent to 1.9% of the region's population.

Ahad Rufaidah governorate

Ahad Rufaidah is one of the governorates of the Asir Province, located in the southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ranking fifth in terms of population in Asir, with a population of 107,894 people, according to the Saudi census for the year 2022. It is administratively classified as a category (B) governorate. Ahad Rufaidah governorate is located south of the Asir region, 40 kilometres away from Abha city, which serves as the capital of the region. It is bordered by Khamis Mushait governorate to the north, and to the west and southwest by Abha city, while to the east and southeast it is bordered by Seraa Abidah governorate.

Bareq Governorate

Bareq governorate is located in the far southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, approximately 120 kilometres north of Abha city. It is traversed by the main regional road linking Yemen, Jizan, and Abha, extending to Mecca and Jeddah. It is bordered by Majardah to the north, Muhayil to the south, Tanuma to the east, and Qunfudhah to the west. Bareq is one of the largest governorates in the Asir region in terms of area, with a total area of 5400 square kilometres. The governorate includes several centres, including Thuluth Al Mandhar, Jumah Rabi'ah, Al Muqatrah, Sayalah, and Salim.

Al Birk Governorate

Al Birk governorate is located on the western coast of the southwest region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and is part of the Tihamah region on the shores of the Red Sea, approximately 130 kilometres south of Al Qunfudhah governorate. Al Birk governorate includes the free zone of Al Birk, formerly known as the Kanana Free Zone, then changed to Bani Hilal Free Zone. The governorate consists of several affiliated centers, including Amq Center, Dhahaban Center, Observatory Center, and Coastal Faid Center.

Balqarn Governorate

Balqarn governorate is one of the governorates of the Asir region, located in the southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ranking sixth in terms of population in Asir, with a population of 60,012 people.

Balqarn is characterized by its strategic location, situated northwest of the Asir region, 227 kilometres north of Abha city, which is considered the capital of the region. It is bordered by Al Baha region to the north, Mecca region to the west, Bisha governorate to the east, and by the governorates of Namas and Majardah to the south.

Tathleeth Governorate

Tathleeth governorate is located in the southwestern corner of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, within the administration of the Asir region, approximately 200 kilometres from both Abha and Khamis Mushait cities. The governorate is known for the diversity of its tribes, composed of members of the Qahtan tribe and other tribes, giving it a diverse and rich cultural character. Tathleeth serves as a centre and capital for the Qahtan tribe in the south, and includes several subsidiary centres that contribute to the richness of the region, including Az Zirq, Al Hamdah, Al Qayrah, Habyah, Abraq Al Nu'am, Kahlan, and Jash.

Tanomah Governorate

Tanomah region stretches in the southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the slopes of the Sarawat mountain range, along the Taif - Abha road, approximately 125 kilometres north of Abha city. Namas Governorate borders it to the north, Balsamar Center to the south, and Bareq Governorate to the west. To the east and southeast lie Ibn Hishbil Valley, Samakh, and Bisha. The total administrative boundaries of the Tanomah region extend to about 149.5 kilometres and include several subsidiary centres, the most prominent of which is Mansabah Center.

Rijal Alma Governorate

Rijal Alma governorate is one of the governorates of the Asir region in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a population of approximately 50,825 people according to the population census results for the year 2022. The governorate is characterized by its rugged terrain, forming its eastern part, and is one of three governorates in the region overlooking the Red Sea coast.

The governorate is located about 45 kilometres west of Abha city, which serves as the capital of the region. It is surrounded by Mahayel governorate to the north and northwest, and the Red Sea to the southwest, while it lies east of Abha city and south of the Jazan region.

Sarat Ubaida Governorate

One of the governorates of the Asir region known for its vibrant market on Thursdays, Sarat Ubaida governorate also boasts the presence of the historical archaeological village of Al Khalf. This governorate includes several important centers, including Al Jawwah, Al Fursha, Wadi Al Hayah, Al Asran, Al Arqin, Subt Bani Bashar, Jaww Al Muammar, Wadi Sariyan, Khushm Unqar, and Ain Al Luwai.

Tareeb Governorate

Tareeb governorate is one of the areas that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia pays special attention to, striving to enhance its development in urban, population, cultural, and economic fields. Saudi Arabia aims for Tareeb to become one of the main destinations in the Asir region, characterized by organization, effective services, and continuous development.

The centres affiliated with Tareeb governorate include Al Ghada, Al Mada, Al Khunqah, Araqah, Malahat Al Habab, which enhance the governorate's status as an important centre for services and development in the region.

Al Amwah Governorate

Al Amwah governorate is one of the governorates of the Asir region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Located in the eastern part of Asir Emirate, it is approximately 170 kilometres away, with a population of about 28,099 people, making it one of the smallest governorates in the kingdom in terms of population density.

The centers affiliated with Al Amwah governorate include Al Ain, Baydan, Ar Ruha, Al Amayir, An Nahdain, Al Farah, Thajr Suidan, and Al Azizia.

Dhahran Al Janoub Governorate

Dhahran Al Janoub governorate occupies a prominent location in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bordered to the north by Qahtan lands, to the south by the sisterly country Yemen, to the east by Najran, and the west by Tihamah. The governorate is characterized by its charming natural beauty.

Mahayel Asir Governorate

Mahayel governorate enjoys a distinguished strategic location, located at the intersection of Tihamah and Asir, and occupies a vital position on the main road network. The city boasts a strong economic position and available resources for growth, in addition to the availability of many government services and public facilities. Its warm winter climate attracts residents from highland areas, increasing its popularity as a preferred place of residence.

Majardah Governorate

Majardah governorate, one of the governorates of the Asir region, is characterized by its natural diversity and enchanting beauty. The governorate includes several centers, including Abs, Ahad Tharban, Khath, Khatbah, and Tharban. Located in the northwest of the Asir region, Majardah is considered an ideal destination for visitors seeking to enjoy the beauty of nature and the moderate winter climate.


امارة عسير
منطقة عسير
امارات السعودية
المناطق الادارية السعودية

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